NEW THEORY OF PLANETARY CREATION
The preceding evidence of Earth’s growth by accretion of extraterrestrial matter and accelerating expansion made it obvious to me that our planet was not rapidly created 4.5-4.6 Ga (billion years ago) in its present size, shape, volume and chemical composition as decreed by the Kant-Laplace Nebular Hypothesis, nor as recounted in Genesis in the Bible.
this realization it became clear that
a new theory of Earth's creation was needed, one that would agree with the slow
planetary growth process
garnered in my research on expansion of the planet. The conclusion was
simple; the process itself amounted
to a new cosmological theory
creation of the Earth and Solar System
I named simply ACCREATION
(creation by accretion)
that is the way the planet was formed. (The theory also should
be applicable to all planetary bodies in our Solar System and other galaxies
in the Universe.
the current belief must be nullified
and replaced by an entirely new
theory of Earth’s creation,
one based on a
cometary nucleus orbiting
the Sun slowly
enlarged by gravitational
accretion of extraterrestrial matter until it reached spherical shape, at
which point gravity could omni-directionally focus total weight of the
protoplanet on its exact center.
this point forward, gravity began to generate immense gravitational pressure
that heated and melted originally cold proto-planetary
rock to form a molten core that
is constantly expanding, thereby creating
irresistible tectonic force
that fractured the planet’s outer shell and eventually extruded magma,
minerals, gases, and H2O from volcanoes,
and midocean ridges
later, to initiate
formation of an atmosphere and
core melting and expansion process is the dynamic
mechanism that expanded
and gradually elevated
all surface areas radially outward
from the planet’s center— which is best
exemplified by the Antarctic
continent expanding southward AWAY
from all other continents.
The constant external accretion of meteoric material increased Earth’s gravitational constant as it gradually increased Earth’s mass and total surface area, and the melting process decreased Earth’s density as the molten core steadily grew larger and rapidly expanded the planet.
OF THE ACCREATION THEORY
key discovery in developing this new Accreation Theory came in 1987 from
listing most of the larger known bodies in the Solar System by size. [See list
below] This list produced an
illuminating fact—all smaller solar bodies appear to be irregularly-shaped,
but as diameters reach ~400-600 km (~250-375 mi), they become nearly
spherical, and ALL
ARE SPHERICAL by the
time they reach a diameter of ~940 km (~585 mi).
discovery led me to conclude that all bodies in the Solar System must be
created by the same accreation process, whether comet, meteoroid, asteroid,
planet or Sun—their only real differences being size, shape, and
compositional variety provided by newly-arrived supernovae fragments (comets)
and meteor flux from different galactic sources.
discovery also led me to conclude that gravity
the primary force responsible for the spherical shape of all planetary
bodies. After an
body reaches spherical shape by slow external accretion of mass, the total
gravitational pressure of its mass (weight) can be focused omnidirectionally
on its exact center, causing compressive heating of originally cold central
core material and a phase change to molten magma that expands, creating
tectonic pressure that must
either explode the planet or
rupture its confining outer shell.
immense tectonic force of the expanding magma eventually finds, or creates,
crustal weaknesses that develop into surface grabens, fractures, or volcanoes
that temporarily relieve the tectonic pressure.
In this respect, volcanoes are planetary safety valves.
Volcanoes also recycle core magma onto existing surface areas and
thereby add to the planet’s diameter.
expanding molten core feeds on its confining outer shell, gradually melting
its way outward towards the crust by melting away the underbelly of mantle
layers surrounding it. The
melting process distills from the solid rock
the H2O and other gases that are
eventually transported to the surface to commence formation of surface water
and an atmosphere.
atmosphere gradually increases in density and thickness with the passage of
time and causes greater ablation of all meteors, creating more dust particles
and reducing the sizes of impacting meteorites.
later stages of development when large bodies of surface water and oceans have
formed, crustal expansion fractures known as midocean ridges (MOR), (actually
linear underwater volcanoes (LUV)),
oceanic seafloor by spreading magma to either, or both, sides of the MOR.
pressure and magma flow frequently creates underwater mountains (seamounts)
that may rise above sea level and become islands.
In this process, extruded magma generates new seafloor that widens the
ocean basins and increases the planet’s total surface area—further
increasing Earth’s diameter.
hydrothermal vents (“black smoker vents”) also bring to the seafloor
virgin new H2O, gases, and minerals distilled from proto-planetary rocks that
melted to become core magma. This
new H2O increases the total volume in the oceans, and the gases are either
combined in solution with seawater or are released into the atmosphere, but
mineral deposits deposited on the ocean bottom are subsequently
covered by accretion of sediments consisting of dust (terrestrial and
meteoric) and organic detritus from marine fauna and flora.
OF THE ACCREATION PROCESS
Global growth and expansion are
the result of external
accretion of extra-terrestrial dust and meteorites, and internal expansion of
the molten core.
growth and expansion mechanisms
slowly increase the mass and diameter of the Earth.
They can be broken down further and summed up as the product of five
physical processes, all of them currently active:
from extraterrestrial meteorites and dust.
This was the only source of planetary growth until the proto-planet
reached spherical shape.
core expansion due to
gravitationally-generated compressive heating and phase change of originally
cold solid matter to molten magma after the proto-planet reached spherical
The tectonic force of expanding magma is now the primary
greatly exceeds the slow external growth rate of surface accretion of mass.
via volcanoes and midocean ridges creates new continental crust and
oceanic seafloor that increases the planet’s total surface area and
of virgin H2O, gases and minerals via
terrestrial volcanoes that gradually generated
an atmosphere and hydrosphere, and via underwater hydrothermal vents
("black smoker vents") that filled the expanding ocean basins.
additional mass by photosynthesis after H2O and organic life emerged on the
OF SOLAR BODIES ARRANGED BY SIZE
PARENT DIAMETER REMARKS
Icarus Asteroid 1.4 Nearly spherical; rot.2.25 hrs; orbits Sun 23º,1.1yr
Deimos Mars 15 Irregular(15x12x11), potato-shaped; orbits 30hr18'
Gaspra Asteroid #951 16 Irregular (16x12), wedge-shaped
Phobos Mars 22 Irregular (18x22), potato-shaped; orbits 7hr39'14"
Asteroid #433 22
Irregular (30x16x16); near Tethys
Irregular (30x25x15); near Tethys
Pasiphae (R) Jupiter
Asteroid #132 38
Irregular (56x24x210), potato-shaped
Prometheus Saturn 100
Asteroid #279 130
Janus Saturn 138 Irregular (138x110x110); orbits Saturn17hr58.5"
Asteroid #2060 150
Phoebe (R) Saturn 220 Irregular (30x220x210); Orbits Saturn 550d8hr5", incl. 17
Irregular?; eccentric orbit Neptune 359d21hr9'
Irregular; rot. 7.25 hrs; orbits Sun 13º, 4.36 yrs
Hyperion Saturn 360 Irregular (360x280x225); orbits Saturn 21d6hr38'
(Approximate size of bodies approaching spherical shape)
Mimas Saturn 400? Nearly spherical; orbits Saturn 22hr37'; huge crater
Enceladus Saturn 421 Nearly spherical; orbits Saturn 32hr53' light craters, grooves
Asteroid #10 430
Miranda Uranus 481 Nearly spherical (481x466x466); orbits Uranus 33hr55.5'
Vesta Asteroid #4 576 Nearly spherical; rot. 10.5 hrs; orbits Sun 7º, 3.63 yrs
Pallas Asteroid #2 580 Nearly spherical (580x530x290); orbits Sun 43º, 4.61 yrs
(Approximate size at which sphericity becomes normal)
Spherical?; orbits Sun 4.6 yrs
Spherical; giant crater, cracks
Dione Saturn 1,120 Spherical; orbits Saturn 2d17hr41'; face bright/dark
Spherical; orbits Uranus 2.5days
Spherical; orbits Uranus 4d3hr27.5'
Orbits Pluto 6.39d
Iapetus Saturn 1,436 Spherical; orbits Saturn 79d7hr56'; face dark/light
Spherical; orbits Uranus 13d11hr7'
Rhea Saturn 1,528 Spherical; orbits Saturn 4d12hr25'; face bright/dark
Spherical; orbits Uranus 8d16hr56.5'
Pluto Sun 2,324 Spherical; rot. 6d 9h 17m; axis 122.5º; orbits Sun 247.85yr
Triton (R) Neptune
Spherical; circular orbit Neptune 5d21hr2'
Spherical; orbits Jupiter 3d13hr14'; ice caps, cracks
Spherical; rot. 27.32 days; incl. 5º 9'; trace atmos.
Io Jupiter 3,660 Spherical (3660x3637x3631); orbits 42hrs27.5'; volcanoes
Callisto Jupiter 4,806 Spherical; orbits Jupiter 16hr32'; heavily cratered
Spherical; rot. 58.65d; axis 2º; orbits Sun 87.97d
Spherical; orbits Saturn 15d22hr41.5'; reddish atmos.
Spherical; orbits Jupiter 7d3hr42.5'; ice, ridges
Mars Sun 6,794 Spherical; rot. 24h 37m 23s; axis 24º; orbits Sun 687d
Venus (R) Sun 12,104 Spherical; rot. 243.16d E-W; axis 178º; orbits Sun 224.7d
Oblate sphere; rot. 23h 56m 04s; axis 23.4º; orbits Sun 365.3d
Neptune (8) Sun 50,538 Oblate sphere; rot. 16h 7m; axis 28.8º; orbits Sun 164.9yrs
Uranus (15) Sun 51,118 Oblate sphere; rot. 17h 14m, axis 98º; orbits Sun 84.07yrs
Oblate sphere; rot.10h 13m 59s; axis 6.4º;
orbits Sun 29.46yrs
Oblate sphere; rot. 9h 55m 30s; axis 3º; orbits Sun 11.87 yrs
(R) = Retrograde Motion
(#) = Number of known satellites
Moore (ed), Atlas of the Universe (Rand
[b] Ian Ridpath (ed), The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Astronomy and Space
(Thomas Y. Crowell Publishers, NY, 1979)
[c] Astronomy Magazine
© 1999, St. Clair Enterprises (Page last updated 29 April 2005)