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1-Proof of Expansion
2-Subduction's Fatal Flaw
3-Plate Tectonics
4-Subduction's Problems
5-Opening Salvo
6-New Views of Earth
7-Expansion History
8-Earlier Debate
9-Expansion Evidence
10-Accretion of Mass
11-Related Evidence
12-Midocean Ridges
13-Hydrosphere
14-Conclusions
15-Join CEEEXCHANGE
16-Original Members
17-Current Members
18-Current Comments
19-Archives
20-Diagrams
21-References


 

ACCREATION---A NEW THEORY OF PLANETARY CREATION

The preceding evidence of Earth’s growth by accretion of extraterrestrial matter and accelerating expansion made it obvious to me that our planet was not rapidly created 4.5-4.6 Ga (billion years ago) in its present size, shape, volume and chemical composition as decreed by the Kant-Laplace Nebular Hypothesis, nor as recounted in Genesis in the Bible. 

With this realization it became clear that a new theory of Earth's creation was needed, one that would agree with the slow planetary growth process garnered in my research on expansion of the planet.  The conclusion was simple; the process itself amounted to a new cosmological theory of creation of the Earth and Solar System I named simply ACCREATION (creation by accretion) because that is the way the planet was formed.  (The theory also should be applicable to all planetary bodies in our Solar System and other galaxies in the Universe. ) 

Therefore, the current belief must be nullified and replaced by an entirely new theory of Earth’s creation, one based on a cometary nucleus orbiting the Sun slowly enlarged by gravitational accretion of extraterrestrial matter until it reached spherical shape, at which point gravity could omni-directionally focus total weight of the protoplanet on its exact center. 

From this point forward, gravity began to generate immense gravitational pressure that heated and melted originally cold proto-planetary rock to form a molten core that is constantly expanding, thereby creating irresistible tectonic force that fractured the planet’s outer shell and eventually extruded magma, minerals, gases, and H2O from volcanoes, and midocean ridges later, to initiate formation of an atmosphere and hydrosphere. 

This core melting and expansion process is the dynamic mechanism that expanded and gradually elevated all surface areas radially outward from the planet’s center— which is best exemplified by the Antarctic continent expanding southward AWAY from all other continents.

The constant external accretion of meteoric material increased Earth’s gravitational constant as it gradually increased Earth’s mass and total surface area, and the melting process decreased Earth’s density as the molten core steadily grew larger and rapidly expanded the planet.

DEVELOPMENT OF THE ACCREATION THEORY

A key discovery in developing this new Accreation Theory came in 1987 from listing most of the larger known bodies in the Solar System by size. [See list below]  This list produced an illuminating fact—all smaller solar bodies appear to be irregularly-shaped, but as diameters reach ~400-600 km (~250-375 mi), they become nearly spherical, and ALL ARE SPHERICAL by the time they reach a diameter of ~940 km (~585 mi).  

This discovery led me to conclude that all bodies in the Solar System must be created by the same accreation process, whether comet, meteoroid, asteroid, planet or Sun—their only real differences being size, shape, and compositional variety provided by newly-arrived supernovae fragments (comets) and meteor flux from different galactic sources.

This discovery also led me to conclude that gravity is the primary force responsible for the spherical shape of all planetary bodies.  After an irregularly-shaped proto-planetary body reaches spherical shape by slow external accretion of mass, the total gravitational pressure of its mass (weight) can be focused omnidirectionally on its exact center, causing compressive heating of originally cold central core material and a phase change to molten magma that expands, creating tectonic pressure that must either explode the planet or rupture its confining outer shell.

IMAGE GOES HERE

 Diagram of Omnidirectional Gravitational Pressure on exact center of any spherical body.

The immense tectonic force of the expanding magma eventually finds, or creates, crustal weaknesses that develop into surface grabens, fractures, or volcanoes that temporarily relieve the tectonic pressure.  In this respect, volcanoes are planetary safety valves.  Volcanoes also recycle core magma onto existing surface areas and thereby add to the planet’s diameter.

The expanding molten core feeds on its confining outer shell, gradually melting its way outward towards the crust by melting away the underbelly of mantle layers surrounding it.  The melting process distills from the solid rock the H2O and other gases that are eventually transported to the surface to commence formation of surface water and an atmosphere.

Earth’s atmosphere gradually increases in density and thickness with the passage of time and causes greater ablation of all meteors, creating more dust particles and reducing the sizes of impacting meteorites.

In later stages of development when large bodies of surface water and oceans have formed, crustal expansion fractures known as midocean ridges (MOR), (actually linear underwater volcanoes (LUV)), create new oceanic seafloor by spreading magma to either, or both, sides of the MOR.  The pressure and magma flow frequently creates underwater mountains (seamounts) that may rise above sea level and become islands.  In this process, extruded magma generates new seafloor that widens the ocean basins and increases the planet’s total surface area—further increasing Earth’s diameter.

MOR hydrothermal vents (“black smoker vents”) also bring to the seafloor virgin new H2O, gases, and minerals distilled from proto-planetary rocks that melted to become core magma.  This new H2O increases the total volume in the oceans, and the gases are either combined in solution with seawater or are released into the atmosphere, but mineral deposits deposited on the ocean bottom are subsequently covered by accretion of sediments consisting of dust (terrestrial and meteoric) and organic detritus from marine fauna and flora.  

MECHANICS OF THE ACCREATION PROCESS

Global growth and expansion are the result of external accretion of extra-terrestrial dust and meteorites, and internal expansion of the molten core.  These basic growth and expansion mechanisms slowly increase the mass and diameter of the Earth.  They can be broken down further and summed up as the product of five physical processes, all of them currently active:

+  Passive daily accretion of mass from extraterrestrial meteorites and dust.  This was the only source of planetary growth until the proto-planet reached spherical shape.

+  Dynamic core expansion due to gravitationally-generated compressive heating and phase change of originally cold solid matter to molten magma after the proto-planet reached spherical shape.  The tectonic force of expanding magma is now the primary mechanism of expansion, and greatly exceeds the slow external growth rate of surface accretion of mass.

+  Magma extrusion via volcanoes and midocean ridges creates new continental crust and oceanic seafloor that increases the planet’s total surface area and diameter.

+  Emission of virgin H2O, gases and minerals via terrestrial volcanoes that gradually generated an atmosphere and hydrosphere, and via underwater hydrothermal vents ("black smoker vents") that filled the expanding ocean basins.

+  Solar insolation of additional mass by photosynthesis after H2O and organic life emerged on the planet.

 

TABLE OF SOLAR BODIES ARRANGED BY SIZE

SATELLITE  PARENT DIAMETER  REMARKS                                                                                          (km)[a]           [a,b,c]

Icarus            Asteroid         1.4       Nearly spherical; rot.2.25 hrs; orbits Sun 23º,1.1yr

Leda              Jupiter          10           Irregular?

Deimos          Mars            15           Irregular(15x12x11), potato-shaped; orbits 30hr18' 

Gaspra    Asteroid #951    16           Irregular (16x12), wedge-shaped

Pan                Saturn           20?          Irregular?

Ananke (R)    Jupiter         20            Irregular (27x6)

Phobos          Mars             22            Irregular (18x22), potato-shaped; orbits 7hr39'14" 

Eros        Asteroid #433    22            Irregular, sausage-shaped

Lysithea         Jupiter         24            Irregular?

Cordelia        Uranus          26            Irregular?

Adrastea        Jupiter          26            Irregular (26x20x16)

Sinope (R)    Jupiter          28            Irregular (35x6)

Carme  (R)    Jupiter         30            Irregular (40x8)

Glauke    Asteroid #288   30            Irregular?

Ophelia         Uranus          30            Irregular?

Calypso        Saturn            30             Irregular (30x16x16); near Tethys

Telesto          Saturn           30             Irregular (30x25x15); near Tethys

Helene          Saturn            35            Irregular?

Pasiphae (R)  Jupiter         36            Irregular (45x8)

Atlas             Saturn            37            Irregular (37x34x27)

Aethra    Asteroid #132    38            Irregular?

Metis             Jupiter         40             Irregular?

Bianca          Uranus           42             Irregular?

Desdemona   Uranus         54             Irregular?

Rosalind       Uranus          54             Irregular?

Naiad           Neptune         54              Irregular?

Ida         Asteroid #243      56              Irregular (56x24x210), potato-shaped

Cressida       Uranus           62             Irregular?

Belinda        Uranus            66             Irregular?

Thalassa      Neptune          80             Irregular?

Elara            Jupiter            80            Irregular?

Juliet            Uranus            84            Irregular?

Nysa       Asteroid #44        84            Irregular?

Feronia   Asteroid #72       96            Irregular?

Prometheus   Saturn         100           Irregular (48x100x68)

Portia           Uranus          106          Irregular?

Pandora        Saturn           110           Irregular (110x88x62)

Thebe           Jupiter           110          Irregular (110x90)

Achilles   Asteroid #588  116          Irregular?

Astraea    Asteroid #5       120          Irregular?

Thule       Asteroid #279   130          Irregular?

Janus            Saturn             138          Irregular (138x110x110); orbits Saturn17hr58.5"        

Chiron     Asteroid #2060 150          Irregular?

Galatea        Neptune          150          Irregular?

Puck             Uranus            154          Irregular?

Himalia        Jupiter            170          Irregular?

Despina        Neptune         180         Irregular?

Larissa         Neptune         192         Irregular?

Epimetheus   Saturn           194        Irregular (194x190x154)

Phoebe (R)   Saturn            220        Irregular (30x220x210);  Orbits Saturn 550d8hr5", incl. 17

Hektor    Asteroid #624    232         Irregular?

Nereid         Neptune         240         Irregular?; eccentric orbit Neptune 359d21hr9'

Psyche     Asteroid #16     248         Irregular?       

Amalthea      Jupiter           262         Irregular (262x146x143)

Davida    Asteroid              274         Irregular?

Juno        Asteroid #3        288         Irregular; rot. 7.25 hrs; orbits Sun 13º, 4.36 yrs

Interamnia Asteroid #704 338         Irregular?

Hyperion      Saturn            360         Irregular (360x280x225); orbits Saturn 21d6hr38'

                   (Approximate size of bodies approaching spherical shape)

 Mimas         Saturn           400?       Nearly spherical; orbits Saturn 22hr37'; huge crater

Proteus         Neptune       416         Nearly spherical

Enceladus     Saturn           421         Nearly spherical; orbits Saturn 32hr53' light craters, grooves         

Hygeia     Asteroid #10    430         Irregular?

Miranda       Uranus           481        Nearly spherical (481x466x466); orbits Uranus 33hr55.5'

Vesta       Asteroid #4       576        Nearly spherical; rot. 10.5 hrs; orbits Sun 7º, 3.63 yrs

Pallas      Asteroid #2       580        Nearly spherical (580x530x290); orbits Sun 43º,    4.61 yrs

                (Approximate size at which sphericity becomes normal)

Ceres      Asteroid #1       940         Spherical?; orbits Sun 4.6 yrs

Tethys          Saturn         1,046         Spherical; giant crater, cracks

Dione           Saturn         1,120        Spherical; orbits Saturn 2d17hr41'; face bright/dark

Ariel            Uranus        1,158         Spherical; orbits Uranus 2.5days

Umbriel       Uranus        1,169         Spherical; orbits Uranus 4d3hr27.5'

Charon         Pluto           1,270         Orbits Pluto 6.39d

Iapetus         Saturn          1,436        Spherical; orbits Saturn 79d7hr56'; face dark/light

Oberon        Uranus         1,523         Spherical; orbits Uranus 13d11hr7'

Rhea            Saturn          1,528          Spherical; orbits Saturn 4d12hr25'; face bright/dark

Titania        Uranus          1,578         Spherical; orbits Uranus 8d16hr56.5'

Pluto           Sun              2,324          Spherical; rot. 6d 9h 17m; axis 122.5º; orbits Sun  247.85yr

Triton (R)   Neptune       2,705         Spherical; circular orbit Neptune 5d21hr2'

Europa        Jupiter          3,130         Spherical; orbits Jupiter 3d13hr14'; ice caps, cracks

Moon          Earth            3,476          Spherical; rot. 27.32 days; incl. 5º 9'; trace atmos.

Io                Jupiter          3,660           Spherical (3660x3637x3631); orbits 42hrs27.5';    volcanoes

Callisto      Jupiter          4,806           Spherical; orbits Jupiter 16hr32'; heavily cratered

Mercury     Sun             4,878           Spherical; rot. 58.65d; axis 2º; orbits Sun 87.97d

Titan           Saturn           5,150           Spherical; orbits Saturn 15d22hr41.5'; reddish atmos.  

Ganymede  Jupiter          5,268           Spherical; orbits Jupiter 7d3hr42.5'; ice, ridges

Mars          Sun               6,794           Spherical; rot. 24h 37m 23s; axis 24º; orbits Sun 687d

Venus (R)  Sun             12,104           Spherical; rot. 243.16d E-W; axis 178º; orbits Sun 224.7d

Earth          Sun            12,756           Oblate sphere; rot. 23h 56m 04s; axis 23.4º; orbits Sun 365.3d

Neptune (8) Sun          50,538           Oblate sphere; rot. 16h 7m; axis 28.8º; orbits Sun 164.9yrs

Uranus (15) Sun          51,118           Oblate sphere; rot. 17h 14m, axis 98º; orbits Sun 84.07yrs  

Saturn (28) Sun         120,536           Oblate sphere; rot.10h 13m 59s; axis 6.4º; orbits Sun 29.46yrs    

Jupiter (16) Sun       143,884           Oblate sphere; rot. 9h 55m 30s; axis 3º; orbits Sun 11.87 yrs

                                                                                                                                                                            (R) = Retrograde Motion

(#) = Number of known satellites

[a]  Patrick Moore (ed), Atlas of the Universe (Rand McNally, 1994)

[b]  Ian Ridpath (ed), The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Astronomy and Space

(Thomas Y. Crowell Publishers, NY, 1979)

[c]  Astronomy Magazine

© 1999, St. Clair Enterprises  (Page last updated 29 April 2005)