Dr. F. Ahmad (Earth Expansion Exchange, Registry: 1, March 1980)
I have been interested in the faults that cut across the Indian subcontinent and reviewing the geological literature, have been able to deduce the ages of the various faults. The faults range in age from Mesozoic through Recent and there seems to be a progressive younging from the Godavari to Mahanadi to Damodar, and on to faults in western Rajasthan and Sind. Also, significantly, all these faults are normal and therefore suggest that the continent was under tension at least from the Jurassic times onward.
This period must have witnessed the rise of the Himalayas, believed to have been a result of the collision of the Indian landmass with the Angaran landmass. But, had India been drifting northwards and collided against another landmass, the sub-continent should, by and large, have been under compression. Instead, as pointed out above, India has been under tension, and if it has not been under compression, the collision hypothesis becomes suspect.
Thus, there seems to be no escape from the fact that India has not collided with any landmass. Many a geologist working in the Himalayas is presently inclined to believe that they have been formed by vertical uplift and gravity sliding; the latter interpreted as large scale thrusts in the past.
Large scale block faulting, indicating regions of extensive tension exist in Central Asia, Europe, Africa, and elsewhere and all the mid-oceanic ridges indicate tension. Even the deep sea trenches suggest that they have been formed by tension.
It would thus appear that the surface of the entire Earth is presently under tension. The contrary areas for which compression can be deduced are hard to come by.
Such a situation can only obtain if the Earth has been expanding, at least since the Jurassic, if not earlier. Perhaps, it has been expanding since much further back in its history.
Mr. R. H. Belderson (EEE, March 1980)
Our work in the Eastern Mediterranean has led us to reject the hypothesis of subduction as a reasonable explanation for the orogenic phenomena observed in that region. Because I have accepted continental drift since before the time the Subductors began subducting, I am left with Earth Expansion as the most reasonable hypothesis.
Dr. B. E. Biermann (EEE, March 1980)
First introduced to the idea of expansion in the work of S. Warren Carey. Appeared to me to be the logical sequel to the theory of drifting continents which I have supported since meeting Lester King at Natal University in 1951 (I was a crew member for an Atlantic crossing of the mv Albatross in 1946, when the first soundings of the mid-Atlantic ridge were made). Supporting evidence at first hand from farmers in the Orange Free State reporting water levels of underground springs to be independent of rainfall or local geological formations; at second hand, sundry readings in fields related to Earth history of which the latest striking example supplying unwitting corroboration occurs in: E. H. Colbert - WANDERING LANDS AND ANIMALS. P.118 (Hutchinson)
Mr. V. F. Blinov (EEE, March 1980)
There is no field of knowledge whose in-depth analysis has revealed contradictions to the expansion of the Earth. Geology gives the strongest evidence of the Earth's radius expanding at a rate of 1 to 2 centimeters per year. The young age of the ocean crust, its age zonality which generally confirms the Vaina-Mett'iusa hypothesis, and the analogous age zonality of the continental foundations. The whole process of crust formation of the ever-expanding Earth is imprinted on its surface. Palaeographic data on the distribution of tropical regions of the Permocarboniferous period in the Northern hemisphere of modern Earth and on the apparent predominance of regions with cold-preferring Gondwana flora. These seeming paradoxes can be explained by the fact that the Southern hemisphere has expanded faster than the Northern. Because of this, the Southern hemisphere contains two-thirds of the surface area of the oceanic crust, and the continents were pushed into the Northern. The displacement of the continents northward is reflected in paleomagnetic recordings.
The gradual formation of the crust layer is evidence of the Earth's expansion throughout its history. This last can be called only a fundamental reason. It seems that the Earth's absorption of energy from a vacuum is the reason for the Earth's expansion that most agrees with the scientific data on the Earth. The flow of energy to Earth is apparent as gravity. As much as all heavenly bodies possess gravity, they increase their mass and are transformed into stars. Stars also grow, as the influx of mass overcomes dispersion. Thus, the expansion of the Earth's sphere is a consequence of the Earth's development. The universal principle of the development of living and inert matter--conception, growth, and decay--is reflected in the Earth's expansion. This principle is dependent on the eternal and continuous rotation of matter in nature.
Dr. S. Warren Carey (EEE, March 1980)
Although it is generally accepted that all ocean floors are young, the fact that this has been tied to the axiom that orogenic belts and trenches imply crustal shortening is the classic wrong-turning in the history of geology. A number of Russian and European geologists feel that orogenesis is essentially a diapiric process and that the horizontal thrusting is a secondary gravity-spreading process. The plate-tectonics bandwagon begins with the premise of subduction, and forces vulcanism, Benioff zones, plutonism and metamorphism into this theory. The facts, however, could also fit the model of upward diapirism and crustal extension.
Current palaeomagnetic methods to measure the palaeo-radius are invalid. In fact, the gross palaeomagnetic data demands an expanding Earth.
Dr. A. Y. Glikson (EEE, March 1980)
Field evidence on the nature of the basement of early and middle Proterozoic domains is incomplete. With minor exceptions, few data are at hand for existence of simatic regimes 2.6 to 1.0 b.y. ago. Geochemical and isotopic parameters and paleomagnetic constraints require an essentially continuous sialic crust consisting of stable cratons and mobile belts during this period. However, considerations of crustal volume and structure suggest that the area of Precambrian sialic crust could not have exceeded about one-fourth of the present-day Earth surface; this leaves the nature of the remaining three-fourths enigmatic. Four alternative models are tested, but only two are consistent with the early and middle Proterozoic crustal record: (1) a sialic megacontinent and a paleo-Pacific simatic regime; (2) a smaller radius of the Earth. The first interpretation is difficult to reconcile with plate tectonics; inherent in the latter is the production of large volumes of two-stage mantle-melting materials, as around the Phanerozoic Pacific, but corresponding volcanic-sedimentary assemblages are very rare in 2.6 to 1.0 b.y. old terranes. An existence during this time of a tectonically inert simatic regime is difficult to reconcile with the intense tectonic and thermal activity in contemporaneous mobile belts. The difficulties require a re-examination of the question of the Precambrian Earth radius.
Dr. Masao Gorai (EEE, March 1980)
I have been investigating the tectonic and enigmatic evolution of the Earth for the past twelve years. As a result I believe now that the most fundamental motive force responsible for such evolutional processes is the Earth's expansion, which might have happened through the inversion of super-dense phases deep in the Earth into ordinary molecular phases. The inversion may perhaps be the result of pressure decrease which is due to the secular decrease of G in the expanding universe. As an alternative, however, I would like to notice the problem of secular temperature increase deep in the Earth.
Through my study, I have been much inspired by several forerunners of the Earth's expansion hypothesis, especially by the excellent book of Dr. S. W. Carey, published in 1976.
Ms. Helen Dee Grover (EEE, March 1980
I obtained confirmation of the expansion of our Earth by completion of a new palaeo-reconstruction. This work consists of a series of 4 models, all worked out in reduced scale.
Different to former geometrical reconstructions, my globes show up in relief primary mountain chains--considered to be gained after mass agglomeration in space, by a certain mantle contraction in connection with crystallization of the original Earth crust.
Model 3 in the series represents an ellipsoid with closed sial and features the Earth approx. 4500 my. ago. 4150 my. N. Pole stem formation seems gained to pass into the start of expansion in the N. Pole on W. Greenland Approx. 3980 my. ago.
Over the longer time span in geohistory from 3980 to 630 my., the Earth experiences a very slow expansion of approx. 5-6% according to my documents and calculations.
Still in the Precambrian 630 my. ago, extension split and the dispersion of continents starts on Antarctica, drawing a global circle. A timetable dating this circle of extension split in agreement with continental and oceanographic evidence, is further supported by the expansion model No. 4.
According to my results we live in the accelerating phase of expansion.
Finally, this new reconstruction is a global blueprint to locate hydrocarbon reservoirs and denotes the main areas of mineral deposits. By comparison of reconstruction segments to the "Oil and Gas Atlas," as well as an uranium map.
Mr. Ralph A. H. Groves (EEE, March 1980)
My interest in human behavior caused me to study the Earth as the most important human environment. My architectural training caused me to question the seeming disorderliness of the formation of the continents. It seemed folly to assume the elements of the Earth would form in such a pattern as they cooled. It also seemed highly improbable the Earth's crust would form just on one side and not on the other. Learning there was positive proof some continents were contiguous at one time, it seemed plausible to assume they were one continuous crust in the beginning. Pursuing this, I made a scaled globe with the surface area equal to the area of the continents taken at the edge of the continental shelves. The continents then easily transferred to that globe, fitting in a way that made a uniform crust covering the entire Earth. In further study, I found that many geology questions could be answered by the Earth Expansion Theory. Subsequently, through my friendships with Dr. Carey and Hugh Wilson and all of your letters, I find that I am not alone.
Mr. Richard W. Guy (EEE, March 1980)
My theory of the expanding Earth is based not on geological observations but rather on mathematics. I go along partially with the techtonic theory except that it does not answer all the questions.
My theory is that sea floor spreading adds dimension to the surface area of the Earth. The mid-atlantic rift is constantly oozing lava as well as the Red Sea and the floor of the California gulf. The cracks in the ocean floor as well as on land are the expansion joints. E.g., the river valleys all over the surface of the Earth. The Mississippi and the Colorado rivers in the United States as well as many others are manifestations of the faulting and rifting that experience earthquake action of greater frequency. Over millions of years, volcanoes and rifts have pumped inestimable amounts of lava or magma over the face of the Earth, e.g., Snake River Canyon which is a fault in a one mile thickness of lava. All this lava adds dimension to the surface of the Earth.
The interesting part comes when we look at the question of relative sea levels around the world. Man uses sea level as a datum for his land elevations Current theories state that the land rises by rebound due to the absence of glaciers. I do not agree. I say that the land area expands both on land and under the sea dictating that the sea levels fall all around the Earth. This explains the receding seas and the evidence to that effect all around the world. There is evidence of sea life on all continents on Earth. Whales in Montreal, fossils in the mountains of France and Africa all signifying sea life is eras gone. My theory, therefore, states that the lands did not rebound but rather the land expanded and hence water levels fell. All around the world we see evidence of receding seas.
The most interesting application of this theory is when we look at the development of ancient civilization to the present time. All ancient civilizations started in the high mountains and moved down river valleys to keep up with the receding seas. Examples of this are the Incas in the high Andes, the Tibetans in the Himalayas, the Chinese, the great civilizations of the Tigris and Euphraytes, as well as the Indus valley civilizations. All ancient civilizations develop downwards from high places. Noah's Ark is supposed to have landed on the top of Mt. Ararat in Turkey. That's a very interesting story, for Mt. Ararat is 16,945 feet above sea level today. The Persian Gulf is now hundreds of miles further out than in ancient times.
Dr. Pascual Jordan (EEE, March 1980)
More than 40 years ago P. A. M. Dirac produced a hypothesis based on cosmological and atomic considerations which fascinated and impressed me. I have for some time pursued this hypothesis by mathematical approaches, with the general aim of enlarging Einstein's theory of relativity to include it: for the acceptance of Dirac's hypothesis requires a new theory of gravitation. The history of the Earth involves us in many problems which have a direct bearing on the hypothesis of Dirac and the geological evidence therefore warrants close inspection.
Mr. Neil Kenyon (EEE, March 1980)
Side-scan sonar has enabled us to map the compressional structures of the sea floor external to the trenches in the Eastern Mediterranean. Compressional waves appear to be moving radially outwards from centers in the Tyrrhenian Sea and the Aegean Sea; driven perhaps by diapir-like upwelling from the asthenosphere. If this hypothesis is correct, the need for a subduction zone disappears. In which case, Earth expansion could explain accretion at sea floor spreading axes.
Mr. Allen R. Lloyd (EEE, March 1980)
After working for the past 12 years in the exploration for oil in Australia, Papua New Guinea, and South East Asia, I have noticed the predominance of horst/graben structures and step faulting. I have also noted large scale rifting, especially in the Phillipines and Indonesia. From a purely stratigraphic study it can be seen how these areas have been rifted apart and the subsequent gaps in the Earth become infilled with volcanics and/or intrusives. After hearing two lectures by Professor Carey, I became convinced that the only way to explain these phenomena was by the Expanding Earth Theory. We are aware of expansion in the sun and stars and we can see in simple physical experiments and even cooking processes the effects of expansion. These can be readily related to Earth processes and it is obvious to me that the great structures of the Earth can only be explained on the basis of an expanding Earth.
Dr. Konrad H. R. Moelle (EEE, March 1980)
The "Expanding Earth Theory" is, for me, the most acceptable and logical explanation of currently known tectonic settings and phenomena. My own professional experience in the European Alps and in Australia suggests strongly that the planet Earth and its development is best explained by the "Theory of Earth Expansion." From a geologist's viewpoint, there seems to be no better explanation for many features and processes.
Dr. V. B. Neiman (EEE, March 1980)
The Earth Expansion Theory is simply proven as follows.
(1) From a geologic standpoint, it is incontestable that the overlaid tectonic zones are formed, not as a result of crust assimilation (which on large scales is physically impossible), but of its tension, right up to the break in the oceans' abyssal plains. New continental, and thus oceanic formations, allow us to calculate the rate of the Earth's growth:
[The formula given could not be adequately reproduced with the symbols available.)
The expansion of the Earth's radius can be pinpointed also by paleomagnetic data, if the planet's magnetic dipolarity in the past is taken into account.
(2) The ascending evolution of Earth answers to the general series of doubling atomic weights of the elements
Li 7 > N 14 > Si 28 > Fe 56 > Cd 112 > Ra 224
This and other paragenetic geologic series are the essence of the transformation series, violating conservation laws. Besides the transformation of immaterial forms into material (substantial) ones, and the mass buildup of the latter, there is the energy buildup (tectonic energy, rotational energy, magnetic energy, etc.) and structure complication.
The increase in gravitational strength (by approx. 2.5 times since the Mesozoic era) led to the extinction of the giants, and the increase in the magnetic poles' intensity (by 4 times in a period of 400 million years) led to a change in the living conditions for live organisms. The author estimates that the age of the Earth's core is approx. 1 billion years and the age of the outer layer is 200 million years.
(3) The Galaxy began to explode about 10,000 years ago, which set off a multiple acceleration of the rate of Earth's expansion and alteration of its parameters. Because of this the Neolithic man had considerably more sensitive long-wave color vision and was more closely connected to the animal and plant world.
(4) We have now extended the expansion theory to the other planets. As a result, a growth series has been revealed and their parameters have been measured as a function of time. From youngest to oldest: Mercury, Mars, Earth, Venus, Pluto, Neptune, Uranus, Saturn, Jupiter.
Dr. H. G. Owen (EEE, March 1980)
Strict geometrical analysis of the mapped ocean floor spreading patterns precludes a constant dimensions Earth during the last 180 million years of its history. Geological evidence from the continental margins, together with the crustal generation data, indicate an Earth 80% of current mean diameter 180-200 million years ago. Theoretical physical work leads to the conclusion of a core in a plasma condition and that global expansion will continue until the core reaches an atomic state.
Dr. Oakley Shields (EEE, March 1980)
I was first led to consider the expanding Earth hypothesis in accounting for the many trans-Pacific biotic links, past and present. Also, palaeontologic links between Malaysia and Australia suggest the Tethys seaway is largely a fiction, and thus led again to Earth expansion. With changes in G in an expanding universe after a "big bang" event, all planets and moons would be expanding through time, as stars do in the early phases of their evolution by way of interior phase changes, re. Egyed. At least the Moon and Mercury show possible signs of this in their maria ("seas") and highlands ("continents"). Plate tectonics is stultifying in its hardened neglect and ridicule of Earth expansion theory. In 1975, I had the opportunity to work under Professor Carey in proofing, editing, and doing some research for his book, The Expanding Earth. This experience allowed me to more fully reason out my own beliefs from school training and outside reading in entomology and biogeography in embracing Earth expansion on logical grounds.
Dr. Thomas C. Van Flandern (EEE, March 1980)
If the gravitational constant is decreasing, the Earth must expand as the weight of the surface layers decreases. The experimental evidence I have discussed indicates that the gravitational constant is likely to be decreasing.
Dr. C. G. G. J. van Steenis (EEE, March 1980)
I am a plant taxonomist, and plant-geographer, especially concerned with tropical botany, my speciality being the area situation between Asia and Australia, the so-called Malesion region.
My main concern is the genesis of its flora as far as sit can be derived from comparative chorology (comparison of range types of living plants) and as far as sit can be sustained by (or at least not opposed to) the fossil record. And, moreover, what its broad botanical affinities are.
Now, there are two main problems, offered by the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean disjunction of plants. Trans-Atlantic affinities between the tropical African and South American floras are still discernible (about 90 plant genera) and plant- geographers find it satisfactory to explain this as a testimony of broken-up West Gondwanaland.
There is, however, an even somewhat larger set of tropical trans-Pacific genera or affinities which are absent in Africa and South Asia. They are as yet unexplained, although they carry botanically an equal weight as the trans-Atlantic ones. To this must be added they even carry a heavier weight than the trans-Atlantic affinities, because the trans-Pacific affinities are of a partly higher order, inducing the plant-geographer to speculate that they are more ancient. This would mean that the Pacific Ocean is older than the Atlantic.
In my review of Solomon Islands botany, I have, at the end of the paper, suggested that the adoption of the expansion theory would be the more elegant solution to both problems, whereby also, many geophysical speculations inherent to the drift theory would become superfluous, whilst, simultaneously providing the plant-geographer with a natural solution of his trans-Pacific affinities.
However, in order to fit plant-geography, there is one condition, and that is, that the datings must be compatible with the origin of the Angiosperms (flowering plants). This is mostly hypothesized as the Early to Mid-Cretaceous; by some possibly Upper Jurassic (but that is without any fossil basis)
Mr. Klaus Vogel (EEE, March 1980)
It was by some reference to the possibility of Earth's expansion that I became aware of the theory of Earth Expansion. Instantly, it occurred to me that A. Wegener's "Pangaea" could have been a completely closed surface of a much smaller Earth. Attempting to join the pieces led to astounding results. It led to a "Continental Crust Sphere" of a diameter of approximately 7000 kilometers.
The brittle top crust became separated by expansion. The increase in surface area was filled in by deeper laying liquid or material in a state of plasticity. The beginning of the cracking of the Earth's crust was in the Pacific Ocean. The continental shelves of the early cracking are areas of new growth of the initial continental crust. The extensive deep sea basin represents the areas of the most growth. The mid-ocean ridges represent the most recent elongation cracks. There is no evidence of the Earth's crust being swallowed up.
Additional Conclusions: The Precambrian sphere of a diameter of approximately 5600 kilometers and an even smaller diameter in the early stages cannot be excluding. The geosynclines are areas of early elongation with the crust in a state of labiality and the origins of the stripe-like areas of folding of the different eras. As a consequence of the Earth's expansion, a decrease in rotational velocity occurred and the inclination of the Earth's axis followed.
Possible Causes: Reduction of super dense matter with approximately constant Earth mass or formation of matter from original energy containing substance, followed by chemical reactions including generation of H²O through molecular and atomic reactions.
I have represented the Earth's expansion through several models and experiments in elongation with air balloons, eggshell models, etc.
Mr. H. Hugh Wilson (EEE, March 1980)
Crustal extension has been observed from many tensional fault belts in continental crustal blocks (sial) and at oceanic spreading centers in oceanic crust (sima).
Extensional stress indicators are documented in sialic crust from the Precambrian era until the present day and in oceanic crust since the Jurassic.
Compressional stress indicators commonly are observed in peripheral folds or orogenic belts. However, such compression can be explained equally well as a dermal gravity response to fundamental vertical block or igneous diapiric forces of extensional origin as by fundamental crustal compression.
The assumption that the global circumference has remained constant under the constraints of a constant force of gravity has necessitated that observed crustal expansion be consumed throughout global evolution.
The assumed crustal consumption takes place at assumed subduction zones on the flanks of extremely complex orogenic belts.
A much more harmonious solution for the observed dispersal of continental crustal fragments through geologic time is obtained if slow, but accelerating crustal expansion is invoked. The scars of early, limited crustal separations can be identified by well-documented ophiolite belts. As expansion accelerated, the main oceanic spreading centers developed as mega-cracks which continually have been healed by mantle upwelling at mid-oceanic ridges.
Astrophysical constraints on global expansion are brought to bear by Einstein's conclusion that 'g' has remained constant. However, considerable support now is being gathered for Dirac's theory that 'g' has been a slowly reducing force in the evolving universe.
Dr. Walter H. Ziegler (EEE, March 1980)
No case can be made for anything else than Oceanic Spreading.
Subduction is an unproven assumption, at least outside the Pacific realm.
Paleozoic ocean floors similar to Atlantic (present day) is not proven; it can't have disappeared.
Detailed paleogeographic analysis of facies distribution and tectonic events favor "fixistic" model but allow oceanic spreading.
(End of Earth Expansion Exchange Registry: 1)
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